Adderbury Grounds Papermill (aka Deddington Papermill), Deddington, Oxfordshire

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Location 

About 1km NE of Deddington, Oxon, across footpaths. Adderbury Grounds Papermill, which is also referred to as Deddington Papermill is not to be confused with Deddington Mill, which lies further upstream. The papermill, in 2008 a disused cornmill, lies amongst Papermill Cottages just SE of Adderbury Grounds Farm at Grid Ref SP 478 335 (see SP4733 at www.geograph.org.uk).  

A rag house for Deddington Papermill was constructed at the village of Fritwell, Oxon, a few Km SE of Deddington.


Buildings 

Deddinton Papermill (converted to corn milling)

The papermaker's cottage (left) and mill (right). The mill wheel is hidden behind the righthand clump of bushes. The mill probably dates from the late 18th C with 19th C alterations (Oxfordshire Local Studies Catalogue, Oxfordshire Historic Environment Record, PRN 150)

Wilfred Foreman states that the header pond has been lost (Foreman, 1983). 

Former drying sheds (left) and papermakers cottage (right)
Former drying sheds (left) and papermakers cottage (right)
Mill building seen from the west
Mill building seen from the west
Overgrown sluice
Overgrown sluice
Drive gears
Drive gears
Water wheel
Water wheel

Cottage above the former drying sheds

Cottage above the former drying sheds

History     

This appears to have been the mill accosiated with the Dutchy manor which was aquired in 1623 by Richard CARTWRIGHT. The CARTWRIGHTs were based at Aynho, Northamptonshire.

In 1660 Christopher DOYLEY of Adderbury asked leave of John CARTWRIGHT to convert Old Mill into a paper mill. There is no evidence that the conversion ever happened (Wakeman, 1999).

In 1678 the OLLIFFE family of Hempstead married into the DOYLEY family of Adderbury, Oxon.

In 1684 one Michael HUTTON of Hampton Gay, Oxon, made a similar request to DOYLEY and then set about converting Deddington Mill to the production of paper (Wakeman, 1999). This was only some three years after a similar exercise had been undertaken in Hampton Gay, Oxon, at a mill leased for paper making in 1681. 

In 25 Nov 1693 one John HATTON was involved in a Final Concord (Foot of Fine) that may relate to this area (ORO, Misc Butler I/5 aka E/168/D/7). The document is in latin and my unfamiliarity with the hand (presumably archaic court hand) rendered even transliteration impossible. However, the document refers to the individuals Hugonom STILLGO, Zachariam STILLGO, Johem HATTON, an uninidentified individual and Samuel OL[OFF?]E[Y?], as the plaintiffs (to whom the land was being conveyed). The deforciants included Ezikiel WESTON and the document also refers to Johis LONGSTON, though I am not quite sure in what capacity. The property involved was two messuages, 70 acres of land, 15 of meadow, 15 of pasture and commons in Deddington, Westcott Barton, Horley & Horton (personal correspondence with Kerrie McInnes). The STILLGO family were prominent landowners in the area. OLOFFEY is probably a corruption of OLLYFFE or OLLIFFE. On 21 May 1690 a Quaker marriage clearance was issued for a Jane OLLIFFE of Adderbury, Oxon., (Bedfordshire and Luton Archives and Record Service, FR3/9/1/1). It was conveyed to Hempstead, Bucks., where there was a prominant Quaker family by the name of OLLIFFE.

Although Michael HUTTON died in 1716, the mill appears to have stayed in HUTTON hands.

In 11 Oct 1728 Michael HUTTON's son, again Michael HUTTON, married Sarah SMITH in a Quaker ceremony, giving his residence as Deddington Paper Mill and his occupation as paper maker.

On 9th Jul 1732 Michael HUTTON's son John HUTTON married Hannah LAMB in a Quaker ceremony, after which they moved to the paper mill at Hampton Gay, Oxon.

In 1742 one Thomas HUTTON took an apprentice at Deddington (Wakeman, 1999). This Thomas is likely to be the son Thomas who was mentioned in Michael HATTON's will. It has been suggested that he was the same individual as Thomas HATTON of Widford, Oxon, papermaker, who was born during the period when Michael HATTON was having children. If so, then it is noteworthy that Thomas HATTON of Eynsham, Oxon buried his wife Hannah on 7 Nov 1841 and so, with his young son Edward HATTON, then aged about 3, might well have sought the support of his family and the assistance of an apprentice. Furthermore, the Thomas HATTON from Widford married again in 1748, by which time the Deddington apprentice would be nearing the end of his apprenticeship.   

6601.jpg
Signature and seal of John EMBERLIN (used with permission, courtesy of Robert Stilgoe)

On 20th Nov 1762 one Thomas ROSE was apprenticed to John EMBERLY, papermaker of Deddington, from the parish of North Aston. (Oxfordshire Poor Law Name Index, Par/North Aston/a/2/item d/ii)

On 12 May 1763 the name of John EMBERLIN crops up gain in connection with Deddongton, when he and a Sarah EMBERLIN witnessed the marriage, at Adderbury, of John SATCHWELL of Deddington and Joyce WIGINTON of Adderbury (after Banns).
By 1767, according to Wakeman, the Mill had passed into the hands of John EMBERLIN (Wakeman, 1999).

In 1768 inland revenue records show that one John EMBERLIN of Deddington, Oxon, papermaker took an apprentice named Nathaniel TURNER, the premium being 000/05/00 (Inland Revenue record IR/1/57/048)

The 1791-6 entry for Deddington in the Universal British Directory lists EMBERLIN John, (F.) Paper-maker. In one transcription there is also a 'COLES Job, (F.) Paper-maker' listed. However, a second transcription has 'COLES Job, (F.) Farmer and Bailiff', which seems the more likely as COLES is mentioned elsewhere in the context of agricultural practice.

In 1798 John EMBERLIN appears in the Land Tax Exemption register, listed as an owner occupier of land assessed at 2 6s (Malins 2012, n.p.). William EMBERLIN is listed as co-occupant of a property owned and also occupied by one Sarah GARDNER.

John EMBERLIN died on 15 Jul 1801 (according to his gravestone). 
Gravestone of John Emberlin Grave of John EMBERLIN (1759-1801, papermaker of Deddington) in Deddington Churchyard. Inscription reads:
“In Memory of
John Emberlin
Who died July 15 1801
Aged 42 Years
Also of Maria his Wife
Who died May 1[9?] 181[4?]
Aged [?]2 Years”

John EMBERLIN left the mill to his son John EMBERLIN (Wakeman, 1999).

In 1808 Deddington Parish was enclosed and the Enclosure Award lists the following for the EMBERLIN family (Forsyth & Makins 2012, n.p.):
Only after 1813 are father's professions shown routinely in the Deddington Parish Registers.  

On 16 May 1813, Thomas JARRAT, papermaker, and his wife Susannah, Christened their daughter Susannah at Deddington.

On 14 Nov 1813 the partnership between Maria EMBERLIN and her son John EMBERLIN was dissolved. The following notice being carried in on page 373 of the London Gazette Issue 16859, published on the 15 February 1814.
"Notice is hereby given, that the partnership heretofore carried on by us the undersigned, Maria Emberlin and John Emberlin, in the business of Paper-Makers, in the parish of Deddington, in the County of Oxford, was dissolved on the 14th day of November last by mutual consent and all debts due and owing to or from the said concern will be recieved and paid by the said John Emberlin, and by whom alone the business in future will be carried on: As witness our hands this 10th day of February 1814. Maria Emberlin. John Emberlin." This is shortly before the birth of John's first son and the death of his mother.

The London Gazette Issue 17009 published on the 6 May 1815 carried a list of the creditors of the insolvent grocer Thomas POTTER. These included Mr EMBERLIN jnr, Deddington-mill, Oxfordshire, paper-maker and Messrs. MALINS and ROGERS, Brackley, Northamptonshire, carriers.

On 4 Aug 1816, Thomas MALINGS, papermaker, and his wife Elizabeth, Christened their son Thomas at Deddington.

On 21 June 1818, Richard VALLER, paper maker, and his wife Harriet, Christened their daughter Harriet at Deddington.

On 21 Jun 1818, George FISHER, papermaker at Deddington Mill, and his wife Sarah, Christened their son George at Deddington.

In 1819 the mill was licenced to Maria EMBERLIN (Wakeman, 1999), who had possibly taken over because of the mental state of John (see notes below for 1836)

On 5 Apr [no date but previous entry was 5th, next was 10th] 1822,  John ANTHONY, paper maker, and his wife Harriet Christened their son Richard at Deddington.

On 12 May 1822,  John FISHER, papermaker, and his wife Sarah Christened their son John at Deddington.

On 24 Jul 1822,  John FISHER, papermaker, and his wife Sarah Christened:
On 11 May 1823,  William GIBBS, paper maker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their son Eli at Deddington.

On 30 May 1824,  John FISHER, papermaker at Deddinton Paper Mill, and his wife Sarah Christened their daughter Charlotte at Deddington.

On 26 Apr 1826, James WHEELER, paper maker at Deddington Paper Mill, and his wife Mary Christened their son William at Deddington.

On 15 Dec 1826, William GIBSON, paper maker, and his wife Sophia Christened their son Henry at Deddington.

On 5 Mar 1828, Thomas WILLIAMS, paper maker, and his wife Mary Christened their son Thomas at Deddington.

On 24 Aug 1828, Thomas WILLIAMS, paper maker, and his wife Mary Christened their daughter Caroline Elizabeth at Deddington.

On 1 Feb 1829, James WHEELER, paper maker, and his wife Mary Christened their son Samuel at Deddington

On 8 Feb 1829, Joseph HANDSWITH, paper maker, and his wife Mary Christened their son John at Deddington

On 29 Jan 1830, George TOWNSEND, paper maker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their son George at Deddington

On 31 Dec 1830, a partnership between William EMBERLIN amd Maria EMBERLIN was dissolved. The following notice appearing in the London Gazette Issue 18842 published on the 2 September 1831.
"Notice is hereby given, that the Partnership lately subsisting between us, at Deddington and Upton, both in the County of Oxford, as Paper-Makers, was dissolved on the 31st day of December last by mutual consent: As witness our hands the 29th day of August 1831. Maria Emberlin. William Emberlin."

On 10 Nov 1831, Stephen SIMMONDS of Clifton, papermaker, and his wife Rebecca Christened their son Alfred James at Deddington

On 12 Nov 1831 William EMBERLIN was involved in an indenture. A few days later the London Gazette (Issue 18879, 2 December 1831) carried the following notice
NOTICE is hereby given, that Thomas Wood, of Moreton, in the County of Berks, Paper-Manufacturer, and John Rainsford, of the City of Oxford, Mercer, the Assignee of the estate and effects of John Evans, late of the same City, Paper-Manufacturer, a Bankrupt , and who was lately a Copartner with the said Thomas Wood, in the trades of Paper-Makers and Stationers, have by indenture, dated th e 12th day of November 1821 [sic 1831?], assigned all the estate and effects of the said John Evans and Thomas Wood, as such Copartners to William Hickman, of Rutland-Place, Thames-Street, in the City of London, Merchant, William Emberlin, of Deddington, in the County of Oxford, Paper-Maker, William Sellers, of Broughton, in the. same County, Paper-Maker, in trust for all the Creditors of the said John Evans and Thomas Wood, as such Partners as aforesaid, according to the quantum of their respective debts, and which said indenture was executed by the said Thomas Wood, John Rainsford, and William Emberlin, on the day it bears date, by the said William Hickman on the 15th day of November instant, and by the said William Sellers on the 18th day of November instant, and is attested as to the execution thereof by the said Thomas Wood, John Rainsford, William Hickman, and William Emberlin, by William Brunner, of the City of Oxford, Attorney at Law, and as to the execution by the said said William Sellers, by Benjamin Aplin, of Banbury, in the said County of Oxford, Attorney at Law; and the said deed is left at the Office of Mr. Crews Dudley, in Oxford, for signature by the Creditors. — Oxford, the 19th November 1831.

On 4 Dec 1831, James WHEELER, paper maker (?) tramper, and his wife Mary Christened their son Richard at Deddington

On 19 Feb 1832, Thomas WILLIAMS, paper maker, and his wife Mary Christened their daughter Harriett at Deddington

On 8 Jun 1832, George TOWNSEND, paper maker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their daughter Elizabeth at Deddington

In 1833 there is evidence that the mill was in financial trouble and the EMBERLINs were facing bankruptcy (Wakeman, 1999).

On 16 Feb 1834, Thomas WILLIAMS, papermaker, and his wife Mary Christened their daughter Lydia at Deddington

On 8 May 1835 the London Gazette carried the following notice
'THE Commissioners in a Fiat in Baukruptcy, hearing date the 20th of December 1834, awarded and issued forth against. William Emberlin, of Deddington, in the County of Oxford, and of Upton, in the Parish of Burford, in the said County of Oxford, Paper- Maker, Dealer and Chapman, intend: to meet on the 1st of June next, at Eleven in the Forenoon, at the Red Lion Inn, in Banbury, in the said County of Oxford, in order to Audit the Accounts of the Assignees of the estate and effects of the said Bankrupt under the said Fiat, pursuant to an Act of Parliament, made and passed in the sixth year of the reign of His late Majesty King- George the Fourth, intituled "An Act to amend the laws relating to Bankrupts."'

On 8 Nov 1835, Thomas WILLIAMS, papermaker, and his wife Mary Christened their son Horatio at Deddington

In 1835, under the heading 'From the London Gazette, 26 Dec 1834' Cobbett's Weekly Register listed 'EMBERLIN, W., Deddington and Burford, Oxfordshire, paper-maker.' with no further information. [William Cobbett, Cobbett's Weekly Register, London, Vol 87, 3 Jan 1835, Pg 58.]

On 21 Feb 1835, The Bristol Mercury published 'Extracts from Friday and Tuesday's Gazette. These dealt with bankruptcies and insolvencies. Under the certificate section is listed one 'W. Emberlin, of Deddington and of Upton, Oxfordshire, paper-maker.' (The Bristol Mercury (Bristol, England), Saturday, February 21, 1835; Issue 2347). The Upton referred to is Upton Paper Mill, in Upton, near Burford.

On 9 May 1836, John EMBERLIN died, though by that time he was already insane (Oxfordshire Records Office: Gillet Family of Banbury Gil/X/iv/1).
Gravestone of John Emberlin Grave of John EMBERLIN (1786-1836, papermaker of Deddington) in Deddington Churchyard.
Inscription is:
Sacred to
The memory of
JOHN EMBERLIN
Who died May 9 1836
Aged 49-Years
Also of
WILLIAM Son of
JOHN & SOPHIA EMBERLIN
Who died May 17 1821
Aged 2 Years
Also of SOPHIA
Wife of  the Above
Who died Jan 28 1871
Aged 78 Years

In Sept-Nov 1836 the EMBERLIN's bankers corresponded with the Steward of Deddington manor, only to find that there was no way to secure their right to the property as mortgagees.
    6597c1.jpg
EMBERLIN paper making frame dating from 1837 (reproduced courtesy of Robert Stilgoe). At some point before it was recovered the frame had been sawn in two.
Emberlin watermark Detail of Britannia watermark on wire frameFrame construction detail
Detail of Emberlin watermark (E 1837), digitally reversed for readability, the construction of the papermaking frame that bears them (reproduced courtesy of  Robert Stilgoe)

On 9 Jan 1837 advice was sought from one John HODGKINSON, a paper bearing that date indicates that Maria & William EMBERLIN were indebted for 1100 to the bankers Messrs GILLET & TAWNEY (William's mother was GILLETT?).  To secure this debt they had  mortgaged copyhold property for the life of the John EMBERLIN, who had now died (Oxfordshire Records Office: Gillet Family of Banbury Gil/X/iv/1).

On 8 Dec 1838, Ann MALINS was married at Deddington, to Francis Thomas SCARCEBROOK, papermaker, and giving her father's occupation at papermaker (Jon Malins, 2010).

On 20 Oct 1839, George TOWNSEND, papermaker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their son William at Deddington

On 8 Dec 1839, Francis SCARSBROOK, paper maker, and his wife Ann Christened their son Francis at Deddington

On 24 Jan 1841, Stephen SIMMONDS, paper maker, and his wife Rebecca Christened their daughters Henrietta and Hannah at Deddington

Despite their difficulties members of the EMBERLIN family were still at the mill when the 1841 census was taken. John EMBERLIN aged 25 is described as 'Paper Manufactur', With him are Sophia EMBERLIN aged 45, a servant and an Apprentice called Henry MALINS (aged 17). Francis CASEBOOK [sic, = SCARSEBROOK?] (aged 26) and John MALINS (aged 63 and born outside the county) were also listed as paper makers. At about this time the name MALINS also appears at North Newington Papermill, Oxon.

On 21 Aug 1842, George TOWNSEND, papermaker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their daughter Mary Ann at Deddington

On 26 Nov 1843, John BRINLEY, papermaker, and his wife Mary Christened their daughter Sarah Ann at Deddington

On 23 Jun 1844, Stephen SIMMONDS, papermaker, and his wife Rebecca Christened their son Albert Thomas at Deddington

In 1845 John Emberlin is listed on the register of electors to vote in the choice of members to serve in parliament for the county of Oxford. (Banbury division), by virtue of owning "Deddington Paper Mill".

On 19 Apr 1846, George TOWNSEND, papermaker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their daughter Ann at Deddington

On 3 Sep 1848, George TOWNSEND, papermaker, and his wife Elizabeth Christened their daughter Sarah Jane at Deddington

On the 1851 Census Sophia EMBERLIN is described as proprieter, however it is noted on the census that the mill was not in production. John's cousin William George EMBERLIN (1832-) operated the successful Emberlin & Son stationary business in Oxford and for a time the business appears to have owned Upton Papermill in Upton, Oxfordshire. John MALINS is still listed next to her, together with his wife Mary and Francis SEARCEBROOK his grandson.

On the 1861 Census one Joseph B HOBDAY or HOLIDAY, aged 38 and born in Sussex, is shown as paper manufacturer. He employed two men and three women.  
On the 1861 Census  John and Mary MALINS are at Hine? House Court, New Street, Deddington and he is still listed as a papermaker (Malins, 2010).

In 1862 John MALINS died, aged 85 and was buried in Deddington (Malins, 2010)

In 1870 the mill closed as unprofitable, at which time it was under the same management as Hampton Gay Papermill (Foreman, 1983, 72). At this time the mill was converted to a cornmill by Zachery.W. STILGOE of Adderbury Grounds Farm. (Oxford Local Studies Catalogue, Oxfordshire Historic Environment Record, PRN 150)

Papermakers

The HUTTON Family

The HUTTON papermakers were a Quaker family. The will of Michael HUTTON identifies several children (Michael, John, Thomas, Jane and Anne) and, from this, together with Quaker records, a reasonable HUTTON family tree can be pieced together. This shows two generations of HUTTONs were papermakers at the Deddington Mill, but also that a branch of the family returned to the paper mill at Hampton Gay, Oxon

An analysis of the lengthy witness lists for Quaker marriages at Adderbury shows the HUTTONs attending on a number of occasions. The other surnames that most frequently accompany that of HUTTON as witnesses are HALKES (8 times), KING (7 times) and TURFORD (7 times), whilst accompanying HUTTON at least four times are BUSBY, COX,  FOWLER, TAYLOR/TAYLER, GILKES, FARDON, POTTINGER, FRENCH, MAUL/MAULS, LAMBLEY, TOMSON/THOMSON, BURBERROW/BURBARROW, WATTS. Amongst these families are likely to be some that were HUTTON relations and some that were just keen Quakers. Other surnames that accompany HUTTON more than once are LAMB, WHITE, WILLIS, KNIGHT, SPENCER, CUTTING, HARRIS, HAYNES, GOFFE, MARSHALL, PRESTIGE, SMITH, GARDNER, WARING, SQUIRE/SPIRE, BANBURY, BARRETT.

During the 1700s there was a style of Quaker clock making that appears peculiar to the Deddington area, except for outliers in Charlbury and Burford, Oxon. It is therefore noteworthy that quakers William SUMMERFIELD and Matthias PADBURY (the latter a watchmaker) are listed as witnesses to HUTTON marriages, alongside notable clock making surnames such as GILKES and FARDON on the records of a 1735 marriage between Thomas GILKES, clockmaker and  Mary BARRET at the Adderbury Meeting (Oxfordshire Record Office: Banbury Borough, BOR/2/XLIII/i/3). William SUMMERFIELD and Mathias PADBURY feature in the 18th C history of paper making at Upton Papermill, Oxon. Furthermore a Quaker family, by the name of MINCHIN, was involved with the paper mill at Little Barrington, Oxon.

In the 17th C there were also HATTONs at Fritwell, Oxon., location of the mill's raghouse, and at nearby Hardwick, Oxon.

In 1692 one Thomas HUTTON, whose affiliation I have as yet been unable to establish, patented a 'New invention of making paper in greater quantities and less charge and labour and more advantage than ever hath been yet practised, by a mill or engine to be driven either by water, wind, sailes, or water-wheels, and to work eighty or more stampers at once, and of an engine appertaining to it for raising great quantities of water, useful for draining mines.' [Jenkins, pg 173]. Assuming that the patent came from a papermaker, the Deddington HUTTONs are the only paper-making family of that name that I am currently aware of  who were operational around that time. I cannot therefore rule out a connection.

The CASEBROOK (aka SCARCESBROOK) family

The 1841 Census lists the CASEBROOK family at 'Paper Mill', Deddington and it comprised
Ann died in 1845 "of Fever" (Malins, 2010)

The CASEBROOK family married into the MALINS family (see below).

The EMBERLIN family

The origins of this EMBERLIN family are not known. However, the William EMBERLIN who held the freehold to the paper mill at Upton, Oxon in 1830 appears to have been the William EMBERLIN of Emberlin & Sons, paper manufacturers and stationers of Oxford, a branch of the Deddington EMBERLIN family.

The 1841 Census lists the EMBERLIN family at 'Paper Mill', Deddington and it comprised
The 1851 Census lists the EMBERLIN family in the hamlet of Clifton, Deddington and it comprised

The MALINS family

The MALINS family were probably relatives of the EMBERLINS. On 7 Feb 1775 one John MALINS married Elizabeth EMBERLY, daughter of John EMBERLIN (papermaker, c1724-1799) at Deddington. They christened, in Warwickshire, a series of male children with the middle name Emberlin, and the family seems to have maintained its links with the Deddington area as descendants are found there. Another link may be represented by a marriage licence issued in 1825 for William MALINS of Kingsey, Bucks., and Maria EMBERLIN of North Newington, Oxon.
The 1841 Census lists the MALINS family at 'Paper Mill', Deddington, next to the EMBERLIN family, and their daughter Ann and her husband Francis CASEBOOK. The MALINS family comprised
In addition Henry MALINS was listed living with the EMBERLIN family as an apprentice (see above)

In 1845 Henry MALINS married Elizabeth SYKES in Deddington (Malins, 2010)

The 1851 Census lists the MALINS family in the hamlet of Clifton, Deddington, next to the EMBERLIN family, and comprising
On the 1861 Census, John and Mary are at Hine? House Court, New Street, Deddington and he is still listed as a papermaker (Malins, 2010). On that same 1861 census one Elizabeth MALINS, aged 34 and born in Deddington, Oxon, is visiting Buckingham, Buckinghamshire. She is listed as 'Paper Maker's Wife' and is with the family of Francis KNIBBS, aged 45, and his wife Mary Ann (nee KILBY?), aged 42, both born in Deddington, Oxon. Francis is Inn Keeper at the Kings Arms. This connection with Buckingham is of interest as the Rev William HUTTON of Maids Moreton, Bucks, 1.5 Km north of Buckingham seems to have owned land to the east of Deddington (in Clifton). In the same year (1861) the census also shows a blind child by the name of William MALINGS, aged 8, born in Reedditch, Worcestershire. He is shown as nephew of  William SYKES, aged 44, born in Mixbury, all of whose children were born in Deddington.

John dies in 1862, aged 85 and is buried in Deddington (Malins, 2010)

The GIBBS family

The 1841 Census lists the GIBBS family at 'Hoop Lane', Deddington and comprising

Bibliography



Any transcripts and images on this page are Copyright R I Kirby 2008 unless stated otherwise.